How an Antenna Diplexer Allows for Multiple Broadcasts on One Transmitter

A diplexer, which is a form of duplexer, is a three-port frequency-dependent device used either for transmitting or receiving purposes.

It can take different frequency bands and multiplex and de-multiplex two ports and put them onto one port on a single coaxial cable. Or a diplexer can route signals based on frequency that have a sufficient wideband and able to and transfer them to the air efficiently. A diplexer essentially combines signals onto one download or perhaps link those being passed through it onto radio transmitters.

This passive device can also split two signals apart from being on the same receive path like audio and data in Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) telephone systems or combine two signals into one single output on the same transmit path. It’s also capable of forcing constant impedance to occupy a single broadcast frequency or enable one transmitter used by a broadcast station to operate and transmit multiple frequencies at the same time off one RF antenna.

In addition, an antenna diplexer is an electronic component that can also be used to transmit and receive simultaneously using the same antenna – or it can enable a single antenna to be used while preventing the output of the other or else. They allow signals such as from an antenna and a satellite TV dish to share the same feed. Even more, it can separate signals according to the frequency they use.

On the downside, diplexers are not for signals that have overlapping frequency ranges. And if transmitters have frequencies too close together they cannot be combined successfully by a diplexer.

Typically, diplexers are used for high frequency satellite signals and low frequency CATV (cable television) / OTA (over-the-air) antenna signals. They can be also be found as part of a front end module for a mobile telecommunication system.

Diplexers are essential when trying to overcome the problem of the ban on building new transmitting towers in some areas. It is very hard nowadays to get permits to build new transmitting towers in many places as there are laws that say one can no longer build towers. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules related to tower erection restrictions and local zoning regulations drive many of these restrictions.

Although there are exceptions for businesses categorized as “public utilities” to build even in zones where it is explicitly prohibited, in reality constructing new towers is nowadays almost impossible.

Overcoming the problem is possible only by utilizing an existing tower as much as possible. Agreement must be found with owners of established transmitting sites. This is where diplexers come in to play – by allowing two frequency bands to be transmitted together without interferences.

Diplexing is a suitable solution for medium wave broadcasting stations and to allow more than one transmitter such as UHF-/VHF from a single pre-built tower to be used for broadcast television reception.

It is said that diplexing AM (Amplitude Modulation) transmitters is easier than diplexing FM (Frequency Modulation) transmitters due to the fact that not all radiators will work for that type of transmissions. Antennas, in fact, must be broadbanded to allow the broad range of FM frequencies to be transmitted.

Distance is also a factor as it affects FM transmission more than AM ones.

Due to the special attention FM duplexing requires, costs might be a concern if the antenna was not already built for this type of transmission. Other factors that need to be evaluated include:

  • Are tower antennas are non-directional or directional?
  • What’s the antenna efficiency?
  • Does the tow have the needed orientation?

Examples of tower mounted diplexers (TMDs) are abundant.

An example of a TMD is the Sutro Tower of San Francisco, a 977-foot steel tower used by 11 television stations, four FM radio stations, as well as satellite companies, cable providers and for wireless communication services. Even more iconic is the Empire State Building in New York that hosts a very busy diplexer that appeared way back in March of 1952 where ABC and CBS FM stations operated from a common antenna.

The signals were diplexed into a single set of dipoles on the latter stations’ antenna near the bottom of the tower.

It is clear how diplexers are essential in allowing new transmissions even though there are building prohibitions against new towers. Thanks to these devices, stations are able to prevent intermodulation and keep the voltage component of a standing wave (VSWR) to the lowest amount for each input transmitter and frequency even in presence of tower building blocks.

Consequently, new transmissions can still be allowed.

Despite this, diplexers appear to meet both the wishes of residents who don’t want any more towers built and able to serve the interests of businesses needing to have transmit/receive antennas for telecommunications. With this device and purpose, towers can be used to provide the locals with communication systems capabilities and companies the ability to have a transmission medium to conduct business.

Top 3 Secrets For Mom’s Who Own a Home Based Business Yet Would Like to Maintain Their Sanity

Are there days when you feel like you’re home based business is doomed? Or days when you have seriously questioned if being a stay at home mom was the right choice? Mixing mommy hood and home based businesses can be a scary combination.  Many moms who survive will figure out a few tricks of the trade the hard way at the expense of lost business or with frustrated children who lash out.  Please, let me spare you at least some of those lessons. Here’s what I’ve found to keep my home based business moving forward while maintaining a happy household without losing my mind:

SUCCESS SECRET#1:  Schedule Your Business Time.   Make your family time family time and your business time business time.  I used to try to just hop on the phone and/or computer throughout the day when I got a free minute, but soon I’d find myself in the middle of toddler meltdown with a client on the phone or my page of marketing strategies being used as snowflakes (you know torn to bits).  My daughter needed my attention and when it was split between her and my business it made things frustrating for the both of us.  Now I keep my business time and my daughter time separate.  I work on my business during her nap, or during a movie and after she goes to bed. I switch my phone off and focus on her when it’s her time.  This means when I do get to work I have to be efficient and focused so I automate what I can and let the internet and my computer do a lot of the work for me. Then I give my business the attention it needs and only I can provide without all the frustration. Likewise, my daughter gets the attention she needs and the meltdowns are much fewer and farther in between. 

SUCCESS SECRET #2:  Call for Back Up.  Maybe your children don’t nap anymore or maybe you just need more time to work on your business than a 1-2 hour nap will provide. It’s time to call in for backup. Family, friends or a babysitter coming over even just once or twice a week can make a big difference on what you can accomplish.  I’d recommend if possible even locking yourself in your office/bedroom/or going to another location where you can be uninterrupted.  Even if the baby just doesn’t want to go down for her nap,  your babysitter of choice will figure something out or worst case scenario, phone you.  You’ll find yourself better able to focus on your business without distractions and on your children when you know you’re going to have a few a hours to handle all those pressing business concerns. 

SUCCESS SECRET #3:  Get some Rest.  This one was difficult for me.  I have a hard time sleeping when I know I have something left undone, even if it’s just an idea I need to go write down.  But what I’ve found is when I don’t get enough sleep. I am not a happy mommy and when I am not a happy mommy I have less patience for my children, which we all know is probably the most important job requirement when dealing with children, especially toddlers.  Give yourself a bedtime and stick to it.  Almost everything will wait and you’ll be fresher and better able to handle it in the morning.  If you’re like me and you just can’t sleep, try making a list for the next day.   For some strange reason that makes me feel that whatever the task was, it has at least been accounted for and therefore it will not be left undone or forgotten.  My mom always told me, “a good mom, is a happy mom.”  It’s much harder to be happy when you’re suffering from sleep deprivation. At the very least, get yourself to bed early a couple nights a week.

So there you go. Pretty simple. Just always keep in mind you own a home based business FOR your children not inspite of them and remember some days it’s worth it to just throw in the towel and take a break. Or maybe rather throw that towel in a bag, get the sunscreen and take the little ones to the pool. That’s the beauty of home based business ownership. You are the boss and when you see the need for a mini-vacation, you go get it girl!

Build Family Connection Through This Family Craft Project

When's the last time you sat down as a family and got your fingers sticky together ?!

If your family goes to a regular religious service, you already have a lot of ceremony and ritual built into your life. These practices not only connect your kids to a greater power, they make them feel more connected to you. As you sit in physical portfolio focused on a common uniting experience, your energies and body rhythms line up and match.

Have a Deliberate Plan for Connection

Families without the external structure of coming together have to be more purposeful about creating these experiences that will nourish your children's sense of being woven into a part of the larger whole that is your family.

Of course, playing a game or cooking a meal together as a family are wonderful ways to bond, but some children need something more concrete or visual. That's why I love the idea of ​​putting some time away as a family to do a project that represents the family.

Here's an idea you might try: Family Placemats

Purpose: To create a visual depiction of family memories and values; To have each family member contribute equally; To foster a positive view of both individual members and of the family as a whole.

Procedure:

1. Print out or draw multiple pictures of each family member (pets included!).

2. Create multiple sentence stems and have each family member fill them out:

Ex: What I love about our family is _________________________.

We are the kind of family that __________________________.

My favorite family memory is when ___________________.

Our family is special because we ________________________.

3. Brainstorm other symbols or images that represent your family. Perhaps you will print out pictures or maps of where your family comes from or what you love to do together.

4. Use marks to write the positive qualities of the family members in large print. Are there people in your family who are thoughtful? Funny? Disciplined? Creative? Hard working? Good problem solvers? Write those things down. Do not attach names to them. In this case, we are de-emphasizing the practices of the individual and instead displaying what are the strengths this family team has together.

5. One you have a rich pile of materials, give each family member a placemat size piece of construction paper. Have each person take one item from the pile and glue it onto the placemat. Now hand each table mat clockwise to the next person. Again, each person will choose something from the pile to glue to the placemat. Once done, rotate again. Continue this process until each placem is full and / or the pile of materials has been used up.

6. Once the glue has thoroughly washed, cover the placemats with clear contact paper or take them to your local copy shop and have them laminated.

Benefit:

Not only will this project allow for you to focus on what makes you unique as a family, but it will be an oasis of time when you are creating goodwill amongst you. Even more importantly, by working in the round-robin style, no one person feels ownership over the design of any one placem. Each mat will reflect the developmental stages of your children and will be a mixture of more or less sophisticated efforts depending on their ages and personalities. (No perfection allowed here!) Because you have all had a hand in creating each one, when it comes to using them, family members will be delicated to get whichever one they happen to get.

Think this idea is too corny to do with your older kids? Think again! Make some excuse if you need to. Perhaps one of your children is entering high school-or even moving away to go to college or get a job. Tell your kids you want to mark this passage and have a way to daily remember the best part of being a family, even as kids grow up and outward. Teens may not admit to enjoying such a family project, but they will secretly treasure it and carry with them that warm fuzzy feeling of family love and connection.

One last rule! Ban electronics from the table while doing this project. The point is to come together as a family – not to each be checking Snapchat or Facebook. Your kids might grumble, but in the end they will be glad they have done it.

Happy Gluing!

How E-Commerce Can Increase You Revenue

Small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) 10 years back found it hard & highly costing to work Globally. But nowadays Internet has made things much easier, from Small shops to large enterprises are now doing online business internationally and available 24/7 for anyone in the world.

E-commerce Websites are cost effective and its staff reducing, Where online strategies that can deliver much greater returns on a limited budget with affordable and efficient website solutions.

While it is impossible to know how many people actually see print advertising, online advertisers can track precisely how many see each and every ad and how many website visits it generates, enabling businesses to attract the highest

volume of targeted traffic, at the lowest possible cost. Whatever the visitor action – making a purchase, signing

up for a newsletter, downloading a report, conversions are the key to measuring Return On Investment.

With e-commerce you will get the opportunity to build your All-Time-Open-Shop and offer all services & products online which can be purchased with a click of a mouse.

Professional web site design is critical for success in the modern Internet Business World. Offering an attractive, intuitive interface with a logical and easy to use navigation layout will make the difference between a happy visitor (and potential client) and a frustrated web surfer at your website.

Your website is an integral part of your image, identification and communication strategy. Successful web communication comes from grabbing your visitors’ attention and providing a website that is comfortable to use. your web site should do both-innovative design captures the eye and is followed by a familiar and easy to navigate path.

A well-designed website is a mission-critical investment in

o enhancing brand image

o building consumer confidence

o increasing willingness to buy

From overall Website design and architecture, the simple things like clear contact information and telephone numbers, testimonials and case studies. Customers want to find what they’re looking for.

Setting up all requirements to accept payments online and automating all the processes, its all depends on reliable Web Development & Web Hosting solutions to ensure the best performance of your e-business.

Your E-commerce business can have its own online customer service solutions to meet your customers satisfaction like:

o Complaints Management System

o Live Chat Support System

o Trouble ticket System

o Online Billing System

The Internet – Now That's Entertainment

The Internet is now a source of everything from pure entertainment to up to the minute news for the private citizen, but it has not always been that way. In fact, in the early days of the Internet (before it even claimed that name), it was strictly limited in its use and no one would have dared suggest it to be used for any frivolous. The Internet was originally conceived of in the early 1960's as a way to enable multiple computers to access information for research and development purposes in the scientific and military communities.

By 1970, several major universities had super computers sharing information between research groups and libraries as well as changing an early form of email. The increase in information necessitated a way of indexing and organizing the information that eventually led to simpler codes, hypertext and ease of use in the 1980's. Initially, the government funded the development of the Internet, so commercial use was prohibited without it was directly linked to research or education.

Everything changed in the late 1980's and early 1990s, when independent commercial networks sprang up in response to the ease of use and smaller, less expensive computers for office and home use. Since these independent commercial networks could pay for their own Internet connections, they could route to each other and bypass the government's "backbone." By 1995, the World Wide Web was in full swing and the government was out of the Internet business.

Predictably, as soon as the Internet was open to the public, individuals changed its look. Individuals wanted more than just a way to conduct business or do their banking, although such practical applications were certainly popular. Today's Internet provides information, ease and more than anything else, entertainment to home users.

The entertainment industry quickly jumped on the Internet bandwagon by distributing movie trailers, early release teaser chapters from new books and lots of press photos for always-interested fans. They created entire websites dedicated not only to networks, but also to movies, particular television shows and even particular fictional characters. Today, many televisions shows have mirror websites with special features that add to the viewer experience. For instance, if you love the show "Monk" on the USA Network, you can play games relating to the character's peculiarities, take quizzes about past episodes and enter contests to win prizes or learn more about the characters to enhance enjoyment of the show. That's savvy marketing.

In an entirely different vein, the Internet brought entertainment of other kinds right into the home that people previously had to go to, not the other way around. Video poker, arcade games, and downloadable streaming video all mean that you can be entertained 24/7 without ever leaving home. Users can play a few hands of cards or enter a tournament. There are tournaments going on around the world at any given time. It's even possible to play a classic pinball game by downloading it to your computer.

In fact, the face of entertainment has changed considering by allowing individuals to upload their own photos and videos for the world to see and even script and edit their own films. The Internet has made us all amateur photographers and videographers with a potential audience of millions thanks to YouTube, Flickr and other programs. Not only does the Internet provide us with 24/7 entertainment, it allows us to provide the world with entertainment that we've made. Upload a clip of that amazing wipe-out you made on the slopes during your last ski trip and you'll be amazed how fast you become entertainment for millions of viewers.

Some of the most popular sites on the Internet are celebrity gossip sites. It's human nature in today's hectic world, when we're all hunkered over our computers hours every day working to earn a living, to want to click over to a gossip site for a few minutes and check out how "the other half" lives. It's harmless entertainment news that reassures us that lives are not so bad, and we get the guilty thrill of checking out the photos.

With so much instant gratification at our fingertips, the Internet has changed the face of entertainment forever. With the Internet in almost every home, you can no longer feel there is nothing to do. After all, there's always something entertaining just a click away.

Porter’s Five Forces Model And Internet Competition

According to Porter’s Five Forces Model, in my opinion, competition has increased overall as a result of the internet and e-Commerce. The internet and IT has made it possible to both focus on the top and bottom lines and market share is expanded and costs are cut. Many products and services exist just online, major companies have gone online to successfully augment the brick and mortar corporations, and the playing field is all the way to edges of cyberspace, wherever that is. We will further evaluate this stepping through all five forces.

Buyer power is higher when buyers have more choices. Businesses are forced to add value to their products and services to get loyalty. Many loyalty programs include excellent services that customers demand on-line. Customers want to solve their problems and many times they are more successful on-line than on-phone. Also, we see internet savvy businesses springing up offering more valuable goods and services at lower costs. Now with the advent of eBay, many people are assuming roles as drop shippers. Individuals can have a thriving business selling goods of larger companies without having to carry inventory.

Supplier power is higher when buyers have fewer choices from whom to buy. As mentioned earlier, drop shipping has increased the amount of suppliers available. All an individual has to do is form and agreement to sell products for the company. The company takes care of all the logistics. The same is true of associates programs that Amazon.com and Google.com offer. Associates allow a webmaster to earn money by recommending products from others. This increases supplier offerings.

Threat of substitute products or services is high when there are many product alternatives. This is different than having many suppliers. Examples of alternatives are exchanging brand names, substituting credit card capabilities, and looking at better values from cheaper sources. The internet allows this with the “global economy”. I can substitute my product by purchasing from companies overseas where labor, services and products are cheaper, but of comparable quality.

Threat of new entrants is high when it is easy for new competition to enter the market. Well, what have we been talking about? Now, small operations can open shop with less than $10.00 per month and make a lot of money. As inventive as people are, there are always opportunities to do improve a product or service or just create and sell something new. Recently, many new entrants have made even more money authoring Ebooks that tell others how to do what they did. Rivalry among competitors is high when competition is more intense within industries.

On-line book stores and catalog companies are an excellent example. Amazon.com and Barnesandnoble.com are very competitive. However, there are many also smaller niche affiliate bookstores that when combined take a great deal of market share. They offer even more competition. However, both major bookstores have used IT to create value for their customers. These values include associates programs, ease of payment and shipping and many, many others.

The internet offers avenues of competition to existing companies and opportunities for start ups. Now businesses can enter the market on-line with few barriers to entry. Porter’s Five Forces Model can help demonstrate the attractiveness of starting your on-line business. A business person should use the model to identify competition, make a plan, and implement the process.

I’m Done With Weddings, and Weddings Are Done

I am not getting married to my English wife again anytime soon. Yes, folks the whirlwind wedding ceremonies’ (four already down) wagon came to a screeching halt at the Easter Weekend. Readers of this column will recall that in the piece titled “Four Weddings Down and Counting,” I wrote thus: “Nonetheless, I owe my parents and the village of my birth two wedding ceremonies – the traditional as well as the white wedding.”

No stupid, I didn’t have all other two outstanding wedding ceremonies at the weekend – all at once, but something of Shakespearean proportions (except it wasn’t a tragedy) happened while I was visiting my family down in Zululand. Let’s just say for now, my family are no longer looking forward to the two outstanding wedding ceremonies. Don’t be ahead of yourself and pronounce that perhaps sanity has prevailed. I have learned to be extra-cautions when dealing with my parents.

This is how the story went. We spent the recent Easter Weekend with my parents in Ulundi in the northern part of the province of KwaZulu-Natal. The town of Ulundi, in the heart of Zululand, is set among majestic hills and the rugged valleys of the White Umfolozi River. The former capital of the Zulu Kingdom, Ulundi straddles Route 66, between Nongoma and Melmoth. We arrived on Friday afternoon. Our trip to Ulundi was an ordinary courtesy visit to see my family. In tow, I had my English wife, mixed race daughter and son born of a Xhosa speaking mother. My village is now used to seeing a white woman amongst themselves so it’s no longer an event worth gossiping about.

However, as a good nurtured Zulu boy, I had sent some money to my mother so that she could buy ingredients required to brew the traditional IsiZulu beer known as Umqombothi. This was a small gesture on my side to the ancestors to acknowledge their presence in my life. So, what a better way than to give them something to drink and be merry. There was no customary slaughter of a beast or goat for that matter. This visit was meant to be as routine as possible. It turned out to be anything but.

Firstly, on Saturday, my wife entered the Mncube’s kitchen for the very first time with the sole intention of playing makoti (bride) and therefore that meant cooking for the in-laws. This has taken her some 16 long years. I had decided a week leading to our visit that it was the time and place for my wife to break with the tradition once and for all. You see in my family tradition, unless the bride has officially been introduced to the ancestors through the slaughter of a beast, she can’t perform makoti duties including cooking. Despite the spirit of defiance on my part, there was another snag. There were in total 16 mouths to feed.

Nonetheless, my wife took to the cooking task like a duck to water. After an epic six-hour cooking session with a malfunctioning electric cooking stove, food was delivered to all. I patted her on the back for the job well done. My parents remained mum on the breaking of the tradition. For the past 16 years, my wife has been treated as a visitor to be served meals at appointed times. On Sunday, the cooking session had to be repeated. Of course, this was now mundane for my wife.

But, something monumental was in the offing. While I was seated outside one of the huts and whiling away the time by sharing banter with my Mom, other family members and hanger-oners. All of a sudden, my father joined us. He looked apprehensive. I swear I witnessed the perspiration running down his neck. At once, he demanded that all part of my family be summoned to where we were seating to join us. I offered a reprieve for them to say my wife and daughter were busy cooking. My mother also chipped in to say it wasn’t necessary. My father would have none of it. He shouted my mother down. Everybody had to come because he wanted to do something very important. Sensing that I wasn’t going to win the battle let alone the war, I ordered some random kid to go and summon my wife and daughter. My son was already seating with us. They descended upon the place at once. I didn’t make any eye contact with my wife fearing that she would ask me what was going on. I was none the wiser.

My father in his petulant fashion made no small talk or exchanges of any pleasantries. He got down to business. He announced matter-of-factly that he was already late in his appointed task to speak to Amadlozi about my side of the family. In Zulu, Amadlozi means ancestors. We refer to Idlozi (singular) – Amadlozi (plural): it means a human spirit or soul of the departed. As he is won’t to do, he walked metres away from us to be near Isibaya (kraal) and started like a house on fire Ukuthetha idlozi. Ukuthetha idlozi literally is “to scold”. Zulu historians argue that Ukuthetha idlozi linguistically gives one the initial impression of an aggressive kind of relationship between the ancestors and their descendants. In practice it is not so. The literal English translation is misleading. Ukuthetha idlozi is an expression that implies something different from scolding – it is praying to them (not to be confused with religious prayer) this is like a senior counsel’s prayer before a Judge. In its traditional meaning Ukuthetha idlozi rather refers to the communication between the ancestors and their descendants. You basically are telling them what they ought to know and possible make special requests. We treat the dead like the living except that we attach greater value in our relationship with them. We are Zulus, that’s just how we roll.

After a beautiful rendition of Izithakazelo meaning praises attached to a particular descent group (in this case Mncubes) in which the clan’s forebears are also referred to, my father proudly reported thus: “I am reporting to you MaZilakatha (Mncube’s praise name) that uBhekisisa, the son of MaMlambo (my mother’s maiden name) is now married. He has two children. I appeal to you to guard and protect his new family. We pray for their good health, wealth and peace. My apologies for telling you this now. It happened a while back.”

My father ought to have performed this ritual of Ukuthetha idlozi in 2008, when I got married. Nonetheless, the eagerness with which he took to the task, albeit nine years later made me chuckle. He even dispersed with the tradition of burning Impepho which is a species of a small everlasting plant with a sweet smell, (Doke et al 1990: 658). Impepho is used for burning as an offering to the spirits of the departed. It opens communication with the ancestors and makes any request, reporting or sacrifice acceptable. It is normally a precursor to Ukuthetha idlozi. I cared less. I was happy to hear my father pronounced the words, “uBhekisisa is now married”.

So dear reader, it has come to pass that the proverbial English wife, Professor D. is now officially united with my Zulu ancestors. By all accounts, the message to the ancestors was accepted. In simple terms, it means my wife has been accepted as a bride (Makoti) by the Mncube clan after the official reportage to Amadlozi. This is despite the fact that there was no sacrificial slaughter of a beast and subsequent traditional wedding. As you dear readers know: My wife refuses to have anything to do with a wedding ceremony where the killing of poor cows and goats happens willy-nilly. As my father has relented and introduced my wife to the Amadlozi, it therefore means she is officially regarded as a daughter of the Mncube clan. She can now milk the cows, cook and basically be sent on errands by my family as a duly wedded wife. Sadly, in reality, this means there are nil prospects for any further wedding ceremonies.

Beginners Guide to Buying a New Computer

With everyone being so reliant on computers to perform all sorts of tasks like, video editing, image creation, house design, data storage, emailing, social media, conferencing or even just chatting to a friend on the other side of the world, it’s important to know what type of computer and accessories you will need before you make a purchase.

So many of us are not too sure where to start, when it comes to buying a new PC. We rely either on what someone else has told us or on what the computer sales person tells us.

This article with provide you with some helpful tips on purchasing a PC and accessories that will meet your requirements and help prevent you falling prey to pushy sales people.

Misinformed

By not knowing what your computer requirements are and what you should buy, puts you at a disadvantage and at the mercy of some salespeople who just want to make a sale, regardless of whether it meets your need or not. Therefore, being none the wiser we tend to accept what we are being told as gospel, only to find out later on that we have been misinformed.

Extra Costs

You hear stories of people who have just bought a computer based on someone’s say so, only to discover later on that they need to purchase something extra. For example, a software trial program that came with the PC needs to be purchased because the trail version has expired.

Trial versions usually last for 60 days after which you need to purchase a license to continue to use it. Most first PC buyers are not told that they will need to purchase a software license when the trials run out. MS Office and Antivirus trial software are usually the two main programs that come already installed on a new PC.

As a side note, you can save some money by downloading a free MS Office look-alike program such as OpenOffice that does all that MS Office does and downloading a free antivirus program, such as AVG.

I recommend that you purchase a retail version of an antivirus program that includes a firewall. The firewall helps protect your computer from hackers and programs that try to gain access to your computer while connected to the internet. A firewall acts like a security fence.

Checklist

1) Note down what you would like to be able to do with your new computer, e.g., browse the internet, send email, chat with and view live video of distant family and friends, type up letters, play homemade videos, play music, print out photos, etc.

2) Ask family or friends to see if anyone can recommend a good computer store or a good brand of PC they have personally used and have had a good run from.

3) If you have a computer savvy friend ask them to accompany you to help you with your PC purchase.

4) Take your time; it is your money you are spending. Ask a lot of questions. Do not let any salesperson sell you what they want, but purchase what you want according to your checklist. Get them to answer your questions in non-technical language.

Be assertive but polite. If a salesperson can’t be bothered to take the time to explain things to you and answer your questions, then find another salesperson or store that will.

5) Ask what the best price is and what extras are they prepared to throw in.

Selection

Your selection criteria will be based on the following.

A quality brand, one that is well-known and has been around for a while e.g. Asus, Dell, HP or a well-known, locally assembled brand.

My recommended minimum requirements for a PC for basic usage based on current technology is as follows.

Intel I 5 2.3X GHz or I 7 2.8X GHz CPU (The speed of the processor)

750GB Hard Drive (The amount of internal storage)

4GB Ram (The amount of memory)

Graphics Card 1GB Ram

Combo CD/DVD/Blue Ray Burner

Keyboard/Mouse

Speakers

Bluetooth

Ethernet port

USB ports (at least 6)

20″ LCD Monitor PC

Windows 7 Operating system

Antivirus Software 1 year license (if possible)

One that has a warranty of 1 to 3 years, preferably 3 years. If it is not too expensive, purchase an extended warranty if the PC only comes with a 1 year warranty. Check what the warranty covers and if it comes with an on-site or return to base warranty.

An on-site warranty is where the service technician comes out to your house to service your computer. This removes the hassle of having to disconnect your computer system, and take it into the service center for service. Though it is more convenient for you to have an on-site warranty, it is not essential, just as long as you have a warranty cover of some sort.

Check if the computer repairs are performed locally or does the computer have to be sent away. If it has to be sent away, inquire as to what the repair turnaround time usually is.

It is much better to purchase a computer that has a local service center, as the repair turnaround time should be a lot shorter. It also has the advantage of you being able to deal with the service center personally if you have any issues, as opposed to dealing with a call center by phone in another part of the country or overseas.

Extras

If you want to do email, chat and view the family via the internet or printout letters, then you will need to purchase additional hardware items, such as a web camera, an inkjet or laser printer, a broadband modem and a broadband package for internet use.

Web cameras are not expensive, so purchase a good quality one. A good entry-level inkjet or laser printer these days are not expensive either, but one important thing to find out before you buy a printer is the cost of its consumables i.e. ink cartridges for the inkjet printer and the laser cartridge and drum for the laser printer. Inquire also, as to what is the average cost per page for black printing and color printing as some printer consumables are not cost-effective to use.

Setup

If you do not have anyone to help you setup your new computer, then you will have to get a PC technician to call round and setup your computer, printer, email and broadband. Before you do this though, inquire around to get the best rate and see if they can give you an estimate of the time and cost involved.

Protection

Finally, you will need to protect your new PC, printer and modem from the possibility of electrical damage by purchasing a good quality surge/spike protector.

Osteopathy As a Top Health Care Career Choice

What is Osteopathic Health Care?

The health profession of Osteopathy (founded in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still in the USA) is an established internationally recognized manual medicine system of diagnosis and treatment, which lays its main emphasis on the structural and functional integrity of the musculoskeletal system.

Osteopathic health practitioners use a variety of hands-on physical treatments. These include soft tissue techniques, joint mobilization & manipulation, muscle energy treatment and functional (strain and counter strain) techniques. These techniques are normally employed together with exercise, dietary, and occupational advice in an attempt to help patients recover from pain, disease and injury.

There are two types of osteopaths. European style Osteopaths (also known as osteopathic manual practitioners, manual osteopaths, traditional osteopaths & classical osteopaths) do not prescribe medications or perform surgery, while American style osteopaths (also known as osteopathic physicians) perform surgery and prescribe medications as well as using osteopathic techniques in managing a patient’s condition.

Osteopathy as a Career Choice

Osteopathic health care is one of the most complete health care systems in the world. It is a distinctive form of medical practice. The practice of manual osteopathy utilizes all available modern manual medicine techniques to assess injury and diseases of muscles, bones, joints and nerves. It also offers the added benefit of hands-on diagnosis and treatment through a system of therapy known as osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM). Osteopathic manual practitioners understand how all the body’s systems are interconnected and how each one affects the others. They focus special attention on the musculoskeletal system, which reflects and influences the condition of all other body systems.

Osteopathy is the fastest growing health care profession in the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Argentina, South Korea, Japan, China, India, Iran & Europe. The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) in a report released in December 2012 and published by the Toronto Star; titled “the Top 25 Occupations in Demand” included manual osteopathy in #13 of the occupations in demand in Canada.

The average salary for a new manual osteopathy graduate who works as an employee in a health or rehab clinic is generally between $30 to $40 per hour in Europe, Australia, Caribbean and North America and $10 to $20 in Asia, Latin America and Africa. Manual osteopaths in private osteopathic practice generally charge between $90 to $140 per hour of treatment in Europe, North America, Australia & Caribbean and $20 to $60 per hour in Asia, Latin America & Africa.

For patients injured in a motor vehicle related accident in Ontario (Canada) all auto insurers cover osteopathic treatments at the rate of $53.66 per hour as per fee guideline set by Financial Services Commission of Ontario (FSCO).

The average income of manual osteopaths in Canada and USA is $90,000 per year. In Australia it is $78,000 and in United Kingdom (UK) it is 58,000 Euro. The average income of American style osteopathic physicians varies greatly as it depends on the speciality they practice. It is $161,000 to $576,000 per year.

There is virtually no unemployment in this health care profession. Almost all European style osteopaths find employment within a few months upon graduation.

European style osteopaths are found worldwide. There are approximately 4500 osteopaths in United Kingdom (UK), 1500 manual osteopaths in Canada, 1000 manual osteopaths in Brazil and 67,000 doctors of osteopathic medicine in the USA, and a few thousands more spread around the world in countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Panama, Colombia, China, Iran, India, South Korea, Japan, Greece, South Africa, Singapore, Vietnam, Venezuela, Latvia, St Martin, Barbados, Jamaica, Bermuda, Costa Rica, Mexico, Russia, Ukraine, Argentina, Pakistan, Israel, Austria, Germany, Portugal, Italy, and Netherlands amongst others. Nearly half of them are women.

The number of osteopaths worldwide has increased exponentially in the past few years largely due to National Academy of Osteopathy making the diploma program in osteopathy available to students worldwide through an online method of education.

Where do Osteopaths work?

European style Osteopaths have the option of opening their own manual osteopathy clinics; or to rent rooms in established medical, health or rehab clinics and benefit from cross referrals; or to work as employees in other osteopathic, medical, chiropractic, physiotherapy, athletic therapy, massage or rehab clinics.

Most osteopathic manual practitioners work in private osteopathy clinics, often as sole proprietor, associate or employee. However, the increase in multidisciplinary health care facilities and physical rehabilitation clinics in Canada, USA, Australia & United Kingdom has opened new opportunities for osteopathic manual practitioners to collaborate with other health care professionals (such as family physicians, chiropractors, registered massage therapists, naturopaths, athletic therapists, kinesiologists, podiatrists, chiropodists, occupational therapists, ergonomists, and physiotherapists) and benefit patients with interprofessional care. A small numbers of osteopaths also work in hospitals, nursing homes, health spas, sports teams, insurance companies claims services department, fitness clubs, osteopathic colleges, motor vehicle accident (MVA) assessment centres and other institutions.

Most new graduates start their professional work as employees. Later they establish their own private clinics.

Becoming an Osteopath

To become an osteopath one must graduates from an accredited osteopathic school, college or university. The programs vary in length and diplomas and degrees offered. The diploma programs are generally between 1000 to 2000 hours and the degree programs between 3000 to 4500 hours. The time it takes to graduate depends on the osteopathy program and ranges from 4 months to 4 years.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 4200 hours (4 years) of osteopathic education for students without previous health education and 1000 hours (1 year) for students with previous health education. However WHO guideline is voluntary and not mandatory. It is not a requirement to follow the WHO guideline. Some osteopathic schools follow the WHO guideline voluntarily.

The diplomas and degrees offered by osteopathic schools, colleges & universities include:

- MPH (O) – Master of Public Health (Osteopathy)

- DO – Doctor of Osteopathy BSc (O) – Bachelor of Science in Osteopathy

- DOMP – Diploma in Osteopathic Manual Practice

- MO – Master of Osteopathy

- MSc (O) – Master of Science in Osteopathy

- FOCORS – Fellow of Ontario College of Osteopathic Rehabilitation Sciences

- FACORS – Fellow of Alberta College of Osteopathic Rehabilitation Sciences

- FBCCORS – Fellow of British Columbia College of Osteopathic Rehabilitation Sciences

- DCMOEB – Diplomate of the Canadian Manual Osteopathy Examining Board

- DIOEB – Diplomate of the International Osteopathy Examining Board

The Council on Manual Osteopathy Education (CMOE) of the International Osteopathic Association has accredited the following osteopathic schools, colleges & universities which provide diploma and degree programs in osteopathy:

Online Osteopathic Education Worldwide:

• National University of Medical Sciences

• National Academy of Osteopathy

Campus Based Osteopathic Education:

• Buenos Aires School of Osteopathy (Argentina)

• Instituto Argentina de Osteopatía (Argentina)

• Osterreiches Osteopathie Kolleg (Austria)

• RMIT University (Australia)

• University of Western Sydney (Australia)

• Victoria University (Australia)

• Chiropractic and Osteopathic College of Australasia (Australia)

• Escola Brasileira De Osteopatia (Brazil)

• National Academy of Osteopathy (Canada, Program offered online worldwide & campus based)

• Collège d’Études Ostéopathiques (Canada)

• Centre Ostéopathique du Québec (Canada)

• Canadian College of Osteopathy (Canada)

• Canadian Academy of Osteopathy and Holistic Health Sciences (Canada)

• Southern Ontario College of Osteopathy (Canada)

• The Osteopathic College of Ontario (Canada)

• British College of Osteopathic Medicine (England)

• British School of Osteopathy (England)

• College of Osteopaths (England)

• European School of Osteopathy (England)

• London School of Osteopathy (England)

• National Academy of Osteopathy (England)

• London College of Osteopathic Medicine (England)

• Oxford Brookes University (England)

• Centre Europeen d’Enseignement Superieur de l’Osteopathie (France)

• Institut de Formation en Ostéopathie du Grand-Avignon (France)

• Osterreiches Osteopathie Kolleg (Germany)

• Deutsches Osteopathie Kolleg (Germany)

• Istituto Superiore di Osteopatia – Milano (Italy)

• Unitec (New Zealand)

• Russian School of Osteopathic Medicine (Russia)

• National Academy of Osteopathy (South Korea)

• Swiss International College of Osteopathy (Switzerland)

• Madrid School of Osteopathy (Spain)

• National University of Medical Sciences (Spain, program offered online worldwide & campus based)

• Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

Osteopathic Care & Treatments

A number of researches have shown patients who have low back pain of mechanical origin are most satisfied with osteopathic treatments.

Dr. Lee Choi, MD, an osteopathy student of National Academy of Osteopathy has completed a research project as his thesis towards the investigative project requirement of course TH 980 of the diploma in manual osteopathy program.

Dr. Choi’s research analysed 100 patients’ response to low back pain treatments performed by manual osteopaths, registered massage therapists, chiropractors, physiotherapists, acupuncturists and physicians.

Patients who received European style osteopathic treatment had the highest rate of satisfaction with their treatments, followed by chiropractic, massage therapy, physiotherapy, acupuncture and medicine.

Over 95% of the patients surveyed who received osteopathic treatments indicated great satisfaction with their treatments, followed by 91% who received chiropractic treatments, 86% by those who received massage therapy, 75% by those who received physiotherapy, 60% by those who received acupuncture and 30% by those who received medical care for their low back pain.

This research confirms result of previous research indicating that patients favor manual osteopathy treatment above all other available treatments for low back pain of mechanical origin and that osteopathy is the number one health care system of choice for them whenever they suffer from low back pain.

World Osteopathy Day

As a result of tireless work of the world famous osteopath, Dr Shahin Pourgol, president of the National University of Medical Sciences & the National Academy of Osteopathy for suggesting a World Osteopathy Day and collaboration between National Academy of Osteopathy, International Osteopathic Association, Canadian Manual Osteopathy Examining Board, and a number of other organizations, manual osteopaths, and osteopathy students, June 22nd has been chosen and named “World Osteopathy Day”.

For over 130 years the health profession of osteopathy has done so much to help human beings have a better quality of life and it deserve a day of its own as recognition of its contribution to human society worldwide.

At 10AM on June 22, 1874 in Baldwin, Kansas (USA), the 46 years old physician, Dr Andrew Taylor Still founded osteopathy. Dr Shahin Pourgol recommended this day in oppose to Dr Still’s date of birth (August 06, 1828) as the World Osteopathy Day and his suggestion was accepted by the majority.

Dr Pourgol is bringing a private member bill to the Canadian parliament to request the government of Canada officially recognize June 22nd as the World Osteopathy Day.

International Osteopathic Association has committed to do the same with parliaments of a number of other countries in Europe, Latin America, Asia and Africa.

Who Will Take the Hit If Uncensored Publications Come Out?

It has been observed throughout the course of history that books, cinemas and many other avenues of creative manifestation faces the wrath of censor boards. Some of them never see the light of the day, while others are censored to such an amount that the content becomes insipid. Also, routine censor of such things are common worldwide and creators have to oblige by the insane, archaic laws of regulators.

Now, it is quite natural that the question regarding censoring of publications will arise and debts will take place over such an issue which is highly subjective. Regulators and censor authorities are often accused of exaggerating the potential harmful effects that publications might kick-start, if allowed to hit the market uncensored. They believe that the creativity of millions of authors, artists and movie-makers should be controlled for the greater good of the society.

Often, it is seen that censored boards are dominated by people who has the least understanding of the psyche of the audience for whatever the publication is meant for. Like in many other social issues that highlights the problem of generation gaps and shifting paradigms, censoring also reflects the helplessness of the creative personalities before those who are probably past their best days in their relevant professions.

The million dollar question that must be answered at this point is that who gets affected if the practice of censorship is scrapped? For which benefit is this still practiced globally? Who are deprived of the benefits that such publications would have created, if they were allowed to be tasted by the society? Most importantly, who are these people and what are their rights to judge the effect of an uncensored publication? Who are they working for? Is it for the society at large or someone else?
Any argumentative attempt to answer these questions will receive a scornful look from many. However, in the best interest of humanity, we must discuss and debate these issues openly, without any fear or favor.

First of all, the argument that censor boards work to save the society from vulgarity, obscenity and many similar adjectives is a complete nonsense. Society is composed of all types of people; Some of them may oppose the publication while others may support it. It has been observed that censor boards act as pawns of the politicians who, in order to save their vote banks and appease fundamentalist groups in the name of maintaining peace and order, does not hesitate to crush the voice of the weak sections for whatever the Publication might have mean many things. If a country is lead by a monarch or an autocrat, then there is little that can be done. But we can at least expect a far more unbiased approach from the leaders of democratic countries.

To drive home the point, let us take an example. Billions of dollars have been spent on debating over the merits and demerits of alternative energy sources. Many powerful nations, lead by the industrialists' forums, actively argues against the use of alternative energy. They camouflage their own selfish interests under the canopy of national economic interests and spend millions of dollars for the campaigns of the legislatures who support their causes. Since money can buy many things and influence the rest, it is quite natural that censor board authorities will have to bow down and nod their heads as per the instructions of these legislatures. Now, if any alternative energy magazine in such a country dares to publish anything that might reveal the scientific truths, they are doomed for the worse. Quite naturally, no magazine even dreams of trying such suicidal feats and subverts to the financial muscles of such authority and the story goes on!

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