Eliminating Credit Card Debt

In these tough economic times getting out of credit card debt can be a difficult chore. Many have used their credit cards to supplement their income instead of using them for emergencies. This gets some too far into debt and getting out of credit debt can seem like it will never happen. If this is happening to you, you will be pleased to know that they are actually ways to get your self out of credit debt and save your credit rating.

The first thing you need to do is check your cards and see which one has the lowest interest rate. If you can, you should move all of your other credit balances to this credit card so that you will be paying off the balance and not just the interest every month.

If you do not have a credit card with a low interest rate that has enough of a credit line to consolidate all of your other cards on, there are still other means of getting out of credit debt. Take the cards that have the highest interest rate on them and try to pay more than the minimum payment each month. This will help you to pay off the principal in a quicker manner.

Another tip for getting out of credit debt is to simply stop using your credit cards until you get them paid down and at a manageable level. This can be difficult, but you can start by doing a budget each month and stick to it. You and your family may have to forgo a few of the extras each month, but if you stick to a realistic budget, you will have more money to take care of your credit debt. Instead of eating out once a week or going to the movies, have a family night in.

As a last resort to getting out of credit debt, you can consult a financial specialist who will work with you on a budget or who may even suggest a consolidation loan to help consolidate all of your debt and that will allow you to have only one payment A month instead of a multitude of payments.

Padlocks – A Full Guide to the Different Types, Their Uses and Security Ratings

The different parts of a padlock

With countless different styles, sizes and applications of padlock available it may surprise you to know that the basic principles of their function and design are all pretty much the same.

Although the bodies of certain types of padlocks (some disc or combination padlocks, for example) are made from alternative materials, the majority of padlocks have a solid metal body. The solid padlock body is by far the strongest part of the padlock and, as a general rule, the larger the body the larger and more substantial the locking mechanism can be.

The U-shaped metal bar that exits and re-enters the padlock body is called the shackle or shank. Whilst the body of the padlock is relatively well protected this part of the lock is exposed and therefore most vulnerable to attack. As with increasing the size of the body, incorporating a more substantial shackle into a design a considerably more secure padlock can be produced. Whilst most padlocks use a spring-loaded shackle mechanism, certain others incorporate a manually released shackle.

Now for the business end of the padlock, the locking mechanism and key-way. Usually made up of between 3 and 7 tiny spring loaded pins, the unique key entering the padlock’s barrel causes these pins to be precisely aligned, in turn allowing the barrel to rotate, releasing the shackle.

As previously mentioned, most padlocks follow roughly the same principles of design. Having said that, certain other products do have slightly different properties. Continue reading this document explaining the different designs and merits of each.

Types of padlocks

There are countless designs of padlocks on the market and many of them can be found on this site. Each of these padlocks has unique and interesting features that set it aside from all others in terms of design, convenience and security.

  • The Closed Shackle Padlock

An increasingly common design of padlock on the market, the name ‘closed shackle’ padlock simply implies that the normally vulnerable shackle has been protected in some way. In doing so the manufacturer has made it considerably more difficult to defeat these padlocks with either bolt cutters or a saw. Crucially, many insurance companies demand the use of such closed-shackle padlocks as an absolute minimum security measure.

It is worth noting, however, that in protecting the shackle in such a way it can frequently reduce the flexibility and ‘usable clearance’ of the padlock. By ‘usable clearance’ we mean the area between the shackles that allows us to pass them through a hasp or hole, around a bar or, indeed, onto a cable. As a result it is vitally important that you check not only your own requirements but also the exact dimensions on our website prior to making your purchase.

  • The Straight Shackle Padlock

Another commonly used design is the ‘straight shackle’ padlock, otherwise referred to as shutter padlocks because of their common application for securing roller-shutter doors, something for which they are perfectly suited.

It is wrong to assume that this is their only purpose, however. Indeed, the straight shackle padlock is an incredibly versatile product having a wide variety of uses – from securing warehouse doors to shipping containers – due to their design and the levels of both security and convenience that this results in.

  • The Discus or Round Padlock

Frequently referred to in the industry as a ‘closed shackle padlock’, the term refers to the long, curved shackle that wraps securely around the entire body of the lock. This precise feature is exactly what makes the discus, circular or round shackle padlock pictured here so resistant to attacks from tools such as bolt cutters.

Otherwise known as ’round shackled’ or disc padlocks, these locks are circular and have a curved shackle that encompasses the entire body of the lock. This precise feature is exactly what makes the discus, circular or round shackle padlock pictured here so resistant to attacks from tools such as bolt cutters.

That said, whilst more conventional padlock designs incorporate a solid body, this type of lock has a circular shackle enclosed between two metal cases that combine to produce a disc, the keyway being placed directly in the middle of one disc. Due these locks’ non-spring-loaded nature, they are relatively safe from drilling or other excessive force and will most often remain firmly locked.

It is worth bearing in mind that these discus padlocks were originally intended to be used in conjunction with a staple and hasp, thereby covering the albeit small part of the shackle that would have been otherwise exposed. Clearly this makes it even more difficult to be cut, hammered, sawn or bolt cropped.

WARNING: In recent times many budget padlock manufacturers have released products that have sullied the reputation of those high-quality locks that have become known for their high levels of security. Indeed, a number of these cheaper, flimsier locks can be defeated simply by hammering on the join between the halves of the circular body. Unfortunately this has become a fact widely known amongst the criminal fraternity who use this technique regularly to smash the lock and expose the mechanism inside.

It is worth noting that this site only sells high quality locks such as the ‘ABUS Diskus’ range that are not susceptible to such attacks. This lock and those from other premium brands incorporate a disc of hardened steel within the case that stops the body of the padlock from being smashed. As a result the ‘ABUS’ range of disc padlocks sold on this site are the leading discus padlocks on sale today.

  • Long Shackle Padlocks

Simply a traditionally designed, solid bodied padlock with a longer, extended shackle, this feature adds an element of convenience by increasing the locking area and thereby the number of potential applications. This added convenience can lead to a corresponding reduction in the lock’s security rating. Quite simply, because of the exposure of the shackle the lock is more susceptible to attacks by bolts cutters and saws.

  • Combination or Coded Padlocks

We are frequently asked if combination padlocks are as secure as keyed padlocks. Quite simply the answer is no. Due to the very nature of a combination mechanism, such padlocks can never be as strong as a decent keyed equivalent. Also, whilst a relatively unlikely occurrence, a combination can always be cracked over time simply by trying out each possible combination of numbers one after another. As a rule a 3-dialled lock with 10 numbers per dial can be opened within 40 minutes with a 4-dialled lock taking somewhat longer in 4-5 hours.

As a result, insurance companies will rarely cover your property or possessions when they are protected by a combination padlock. That is not to say, however, that these locks are not a hugely useful tool in the right circumstances. One obvious advantage is seen when a number of users need access to a single place with another benefit arising from eliminating the need to carry a key around at all times.

A further convenient security factor is afforded by being able to reset and change the combination of the padlock at any time – whilst unlocked of course. That said, there have been occasions when a single malicious and yet authorised user has reset the code to suit their own ends. To combat this issue a number of manufactures have introduced a feature that prevents the combination from being reset without a key.

Weather Proof Padlocks

A completely weatherproof padlock – frequently known as the ‘marine’ padlock due to their suitability for salty and other extreme environments – is a lock that consists of 100% stainless steel and non-corrosive materials.

With many padlocks being constructed from more vulnerable materials, the obvious weak link across nearly all padlock types is the internal mechanism, a series of tiny springs and pins that, when rusted, will stop the lock from operating correctly and ultimately stop the lock from functioning at all.

That is not to say that many ‘non-marine’ padlocks are not ideally suited to outside use due to the fact that many high-quality locks have been developed using non-corroding materials. A prime example of this would be the range of ABUS padlocks sold here on this site, a series of padlocks constructed using only the best quality of marine grade materials.

  • The Choice Between Weatherproof and Security

Why would you choose a standard, more traditional padlock if a marine padlock is so very secure? Put simply, completely non-corroding materials such as those used in the manufacture of marine padlocks are softer than those used for conventional locks. As a result the shackles of these locks can be cut, sawn through or bolt cropped more easily. It is vital that you consider this factor very carefully before you choose which padlock to use.

Whilst the exposed shackle may discolour over time, the conventional type of padlock would generally be a better option for normal outdoor use. Whilst this discolouration may worry some customers it is nothing to worry about as the corrosion they see will not affect the functionality of their lock.

As with most things in life, however, there are exceptions to this rule. The ABUS Granit series padlocks found on this site are actually manufactured using fully marine-grade materials, are cataphorically coated and therefore able to cope with incredibly extreme environments for over 80 years.

All things considered, however, if you are planning on leaving your lock unattended for long periods of time, by the sea, on a boat or in areas with extreme environments we would always recommend you use a fully marine-grade padlock. To make it easy to find locks like these on our site, any padlock with the ‘raindrop’ icon is classed as fully weatherproof.

Some types of padlocks offer even greater levels of protection by including an external protective plastic jacket and a shielded keyway. You will find that this specific type of padlock is frequently marine grade or ‘weatherproof’ and present a suitable option for those wishing to guard their lock from moisture be it from precipitation or other elements.

Insurance Rated Padlocks

More and more often insurance companies are requiring policy holders to install specific types of padlocks, often ones with minimum security ratings. Whilst this will depend upon your individual insurance firm the majority of them will adhere to a similar set of basic requirements, most insisting that the insured used a ‘closed shackle’, keyed design rather than a more traditional or combination style.

Quite often, however, underwriters will insist on padlocks that are towards the higher end of the industry standard for European padlock testing – the CEN grade. Whilst Level 6 padlocks frequently cost in excess of £100, they are easily the most secure padlocks on sale in the UK today.

The grading process undertaken by CEN is intended to effectively simulate a determined attack upon the padlock. Environmental effects and manipulation by humans are not included in these tests:

  • GRADE 6 – Maximum Security
  • GRADE 5 – Extra High Security
  • GRADE 4 – High Security
  • GRADE 3 – Medium Security
  • GRADE 2 – Standard Security
  • GRADE 1 – Low Security

Frequently criticised, this grading system is arguably rather flawed due to the fact that a padlock need only fail one of the test criteria to be awarded its lowest grade. One example of how this can affect an otherwise excellent, high security padlock is where the said lock may pass all tests with flying colours but may fail at minus 40 degrees centigrade, a temperature that would never be reached in most areas of the world.

Despite its flaws it is still a much more useful system of classification than simply defining a lock as ‘closed shackle’ as required by many insurance underwriters. Nothing But Padlocks stock a number of open-shackle padlocks that are 2 levels higher in the European CEN scheme than some of our (traditionally more secure) closed-shackle locks.

If you find yourself with this problem and discover that a closed-shackle padlock just won’t work, why not consult your insurance company and they will provide you with the relevant BS EM or CEN grading.

Can A Padlocks Be Picked?

It is an inescapable fact that any padlock can be picked by a true expert. Some padlocks, however, are more easily picked than others. Reassuringly though, even the greatest locksmiths can spend hours picking the cream of the modern padlocks.

The workings of a padlock are not as simple as many would imagine. Inside is a series of spring-loaded pins of varying lengths which are aligned as the notches cut into the key move over them. It is technically possible to adjust these pins (using specialised lock picking tools) into such a position that the padlock will open.

Unfortunately, due to their smaller dimensions and the correspondingly smaller number of pins, smaller padlocks are usually easier to pick. As a general example, a 50mm lock could contact around 4-7 locking pins whilst a smaller, 30mm device would only use 3-4.

This is not to say that smaller padlocks will not be particular secure, not at all. Knowing the limitations of their locks all too well, the premium manufacturers of padlocks have come up with a number of devices that help prevent manipulation by outside elements – commonly known as criminals. Split pins with mushroom-shaped heads, guarded keyways and completely ‘pinless’ locking mechanisms are just a few of those anti-manipulation devices that now mean any high-quality padlocks, regardless of size, will be resistant to almost any thief or lock-picker.

However, when it comes to securing truly valuable items it is always worth going for the very best, something that will defeat even the most experienced lock smiths around. Both ABUS and Abloy, for example, have devised ingenious padlock lock cylinders for the padlocks that now use rotating discs instead of pins. Those very ABUS padlocks are available on this site and are referred to as the ‘Granit Plus’ range. With these discs rotating around 360 degrees, compromising such a padlock is near impossible. Furthermore, a malicious keyholder can’t simply get another key cut to further their own ends. These padlocks come with a unique code card that must be presented to an authorised locksmith before another key can be cut.

Keyed Alike and Master Key Padlocks

Whilst the majority of padlocks can only be opened by a single key it is frequently useful to have a number of padlocks that can be unlocked by a single master key.

At manufacture most padlocks are what the industry refer to as ‘Keyed Different’ meaning that the locking mechanism of each lock produced by that manufacturer is chosen at random. Usually this translates to 2 out of approximately 500 locks working with the same key. Clearly the number of duplicates will fall along with the number of locking pins used in the lock, i.e. if the padlock in question is a smaller device with fewer locking pins there will probably be more duplicates in existence. The same applies to many budget padlocks where quality control and accuracy are more in question.

  • Keyed Alike

There is also another type of padlock, only marginally more expensive than keyed-different locks, called ‘keyed alike’. Due to their minimal price difference they have become incredibly popular purchases for the customer who needs one key that can open the same ‘suite’ of padlocks. The term ‘suite’ refers to a series of identical padlocks.

“Does this compromise security?”… a commonly asked question and one that makes a lot of sense considering that more people will have access to the keys. Quite simply the answer is yes, more people will have access to the key but, for many of our customers, that price is worth paying for the added convenience.

If this does concern you it is possible to reduce this risk by choosing a lock from one of the premium manufacturers. Most of these firms will have a number of key-sets available thereby reducing the level of risk to the security conscious customer. As a padlock specialist we take steps to further mitigate the risk inherent in keyed-alike padlocks by stocking a number of these key-sets and rotating them on a regular basis.

  • Master Key

For a compromise between ‘keyed-different’ and ‘keyed-alike’ padlocks there is always a third way – ‘Master-keyed’ padlocks. In this case each lock has its own key but is part of a larger group which can all be opened by one common key, or master. As long as the master key is kept tightly locked away the whole set should be perfectly secure.

Clearly with this increase in security comes an increase in cost if only because of their added complexity. When a combination of both convenience and security is essential the master-key setup is ideal.

Color Appeal in Advertising

The colors you use for an advertisement are more important than the actual wording of the ad. The reason for this is the colors (and graphics) capture the consumers attention then causes them to read your ad. According to psychology.about.com, “Psychologists have suggested that color impression can account for 60% of the acceptance or rejection of that product or service.”

Each color has different meanings to different cultures. For advertising purposes, it is extremely important to design your ads in a way that appeals to your target market. Try to choose colors that will compliment the message you are sending to your consumers.

Red

Red is a color that symbolizes action, warmth, power, aggression, excitement, drama, fire, blood, passion, love, danger, anger, and heat. It is a highly visible color that will always attract attention. Red will also stimulate several emotions.

Stop signs have trained us to stop and look when we see red. So it is only natural to want to stop and look at a red billboard.

Studies show that people in casinos gamble more in red rooms than room with any other colors. Red is also a good color for automobiles sales, pet shops, pasta shops, pizzerias, and restaurants.

However, the color red is not recommended for medical companies because it signals bad health, blood, and emergencies. Red is also the color accountants use to show that they have a negative cash flow.

Orange

Orange is a vibrant and fun color. It improves mental clarity, promotes warmth and happiness. Orange also increases the oxygen’s flow to the brain. Contentment, fruitfulness, and wholesomeness are qualities that are also associated with orange.

The color orange can help an expensive product seem more reasonably priced. It is the perfect color for products that appeal to a wide variety of people.

Orange is an appetite stimulant. It is a good color choice for vitamin shops, Mexican restaurants, dance clubs, and products that target Latin and French people.

Yellow

Yellow is a perfect color for sunny, happy, bright, cheerful, playful, easygoing, and optimistic advertisements. Ideal for florists, candy shops, toy stores, amusement parks, and discount stores.

Yellow is the first color the eye processes. It is also the most visible color to the human eye. This is why it grabs attention faster than any other color.

Yellow is also a color of caution. Most yellow road signs are warning drivers of a problem in the road or with the on-coming traffic. This is just another reason why yellow grabs our attention quickly.

Green

Green symbolizes life, nature, environment, youth, money, renewal, hope, and power. It is a color that soothes people, reduces pain, and makes us feel safe.

Since green traffic lights have conditioned us to go forward or to enter places, it makes us feel welcomed. This is a great quality for any product or service.

Yellow-green is not a wise color for food advertisements because it is an appetite depressant.

Light green calms people. That is why most walls in jails, schools, waiting rooms, and hospitals are light green.

Green is a great color for financial advisors, banks, and accountants because it signals money. It is also good for outdoor products because it gives consumers a natural outdoor feeling. The color green can be used for green houses, vegetable stands, landscaping, and farmers because it signals life.

Blue

Blue makes people feel calm, relaxed, tranquil, peaceful, wise, loyal, and trustworthy. It helps people accept themselves and resolve their problems.

The color blue also helps increase productivity.

On the other hand, the color blue can also symbolize sadness, and depression. Since most foods are not blue, the color blue is an appetite suppressant that can help people lose weight!

Blue is definitely the most popular color of both men and women. Several well-known corporations use blue in their logos. It is a great color choice for travel agencies, pool companies, masseurs, doctors offices, pharmacies, medical suppliers, motels, psychologists, and weight loss centers.

Purple

Purple is a sophisticated, creative, luxurious, and wealthy color. It is also associated with royalty. A bluish shade of purple tends to create mystery, while a reddish shade of purple is sensual, and creative. Purple with a red tint will get more attention.

Purple is hard for some people (mainly men) to see. However, it is a great color for artists, elaborate restaurants, clothing stores, book stores, art galleries, night clubs, magicians, photographers, country clubs, golf courses, jewelry stores, beauticians, and fortune tellers.

Brown

Brown symbolizes coffee, lumber, and earth-tone products. It is a reliable, solid, strong, mature, and comfortable color. Brown is now considered a rich and robust color.

The color brown is an excellent color for hardware stores, coffee houses, craft shops, herbal shops, health food stores, male haberdasheries, cabinet shops, western stores, contractors, clock shops, and carpenters.

Black

Black symbolizes power, prestige, elegance, style, reliability, simplicity, and sophistication. The color black is more about attitude than anything else. It is a trendy color that keeps consumers up to date with technology. It is also a very informative color.

Black used to be viewed as the color of death, witches, demons, and evil. However, this perception is declining.

Black is a great color choice for music shops, accountants, lawyers, electronic stores, and tire stores.

White

White symbolizes purity, cleanliness, virtue, innocence, and freshness.

The color white is a great choice for bridal shops, weddings, religious groups, daycare centers, medical facilities, wineries, dentists, catering companies, bakeries, museums, historical sites, bed and bath shops, dry cleaners, and cleaning services.

Please be careful, because white is a color of death and mourning is China, Japan, and other Middle East countries.

Once you have selected the right color(s) for your business, be sure to find out what colors effectively compliment your color choice.

Deductible Auto Expenses

Standard Mileage Rates

The standard mileage rates enable a taxpayer using a vehicle for specified purposes to deduct vehicle expenses on a per mile basis rather than deducting actual car expenses that are incurred during the year. The rates vary, depending on the purpose of the transport.

Correspondingly, the standard mileage rates differ from one another depending on whether the vehicle is used for business, charitable purposes, obtaining medical care or relocating for employment.

It is very important that taxpayers keep accurate records when it comes to deducting these uses of their personal vehicles in the form of mileage and or receipts for actual expenses.

Business Use of a Taxpayer's Personal Vehicle

A taxpayer may deduct unreimbursed employee expenses, including unreimbursed expenses related to business use of a personal vehicle as "miscellaneous itemized deductions" to the extent the total of such expenses exceeds 2% of his or her adjusted Gross income. In order for the charges to be deductible, however, they must meet certain criteria. Thus, for expenses in connection with a vehicle's business use to be deductible, such expenses must have been paid or incurred during the tax year for the ordinary and necessary purpose of carrying on the taxpayer's trade or business as an employee, provided the paid or incurred Personal vehicle expenses meeting these three criteria are not reimbursed. The deductible personal vehicle expenses include traveling:

1. Between workplaces;

2. To meet with a business customer;

3. To attend a business meeting located away from the taxpayer's regular workplace; Or from the taxpayer's home to a temporary place of work.

The 2015 standard mileage rate applicable to deduction of eligible personal vehicle expenses incurred while the vehicle is being used in an employer's business is 57.5 ¢ per mile. In addition to using the standard mileage rate, a taxpayer may also deduct any business related parking fees and tolls paid while engaging in deductible business travel. However, parking fees paid by a taxpayer to park his or her vehicle at the usual place of business are considered commuting expenses and are not deductible.

Usage of a Personal Vehicle for Charitable Purposes

A taxpayer may deduct as a charitable contribution any unreimbursed out-of-pocket expenses, such as the cost of gas and oil, directly related to the use of a personal vehicle in providing services to a charitable organization. Alternately, a taxpayer may use the standard mileage rate applicable to the use of a personal vehicle for charitable purposes. For 2015, the standard mileage rate for a taxpayer's use of a personal vehicle for charitable purposes is 14 ¢ per mile.

As in the case of other mileage deductions, the taxpayer may also deduct parking fees and tolls regardless of whether the actual expenses or standard mileage rate is used.

A related issue involves a taxpayer's travel expenses incurred in providing services to a charity. Thus, in addition, a taxpayer may generally claim a charitable contribution deduction for travel expenses necessarily incurred while away from home performing services for a charitable organization provided there is no significant element of personal pleasure, recreation, or vacation in the travel, and the taxpayer Must be on duty in a genuine and substantial sense through the trip.

Personal Vehicle to Obtain Medical Care

A taxpayer may also deduct medical and dental expenses to the extent the total of such expenses exceeded 10% of adjusted gross income for taxpayers younger than age 65 or 7.5% for taxpayers age 65 and older. The threshold for taxpayers age 65 or older stays at 7.5% through 2016, but beginning in 2017, medical and dental expenses will be deductible, regardless of the age of the taxpayer, only if they exceed 10% of the taxpayer's adjusted gross income.

The vehicle expenses a taxpayer may include as medical and dental expenses are the amounts paid for transportation to obtain medical care for the taxpayer, a spouse or a dependent. A taxpayer may also include as medical and dental expenses those transport costs incurred:

1. By a parent who must accompany a child needing medical care;

2. By a nurse or other person who can administer injections, medications or other treatment required by a patient traveling to obtain medical care and unable to travel alone.

3. For regular visits to see a mentally-ill dependent, if such visits are recommended as a part of the mentally ill dependent's treatment.

A taxpayer who uses a personal vehicle for such medical reasons is permitted to include the out-of-pocket vehicle expenses incurred the expenses for gas and oil, for example or deduct medical travel expenses at the standard medical mileage rate. For 2015, the standard medical mileage rate is 23 ¢ per mile. The taxpayer may also deduct any parking fees or tolls, regardless of whether actual expense or the standard mileage rate is used.

Use of a Taxpayer's Personal Vehicle to Move

Many taxpayers change their residence each year, and many of those taxpayer relocations involve new jobs that can permit a taxpayer to deduct moving expenses by car. Thus, certain moving expenses incurred within one year of the date a taxpayer first reported to work at a new main job location, provided the new location is at least 50 miles farther from the taxpayer's former home than the former main job location may be deducted as An adjustment to gross income. The deductible moving expenses include the expenses of traveling to a new home, including transportation and lodging enroute.

A taxpayer who uses his or her personal vehicle to transport the taxpayer, members of the taxpayer's household or the taxpayer's personal effects to a new home may deduct such costs, provided the move is eligible for the deduction of moving expenses. In addition to any parking fees and tolls paid, the taxpayer is permitted to deduct the actual vehicle expenses incurred, such as the expenses for gas and oil or the standard mileage rate.

The standard mileage rate for 2015 applicable to moving expenses is 23 ¢ per mile.

Family, Incest, and Law

Family Values ​​in Ancient Times:

Many people of the present make some very grave and disturbing assumptions about prior unethical behavior by humans. My theories may be biased and overly appreciative of a time before Empire and there is less data due to the destructive power of Empire and the hegemony to go on. However, that data is more pure and less likely to have been promoted or propagandized for the interests of power-mongers. Top scholars and those who are regarded as great academies still debate whenever women ever had equal rights and some state there were never matriarchal societies of great note. It would be a surprise for me if there were not many different approaches used in various cultures and millennia before the Ice Age we just experienced and thereafter, leading up to what we call history. Much of history today has all the marks of hegemony akin to the Middle Ages according to John Ralston Saul who says it "has come to resemble the obscure and controlling scholasticism of the Middle Ages." (1)

Could it be that ethics and moral behavior had higher importance in the communal homes of the Kelts and North American Indians, as well as other societies through this awesome world? We now know it has been traversed by ancient humans who loved and played all over the place for a far longer period than we have been lead to believe even though many may not be aware of these facts. Is it possible that basic principles were easily communicated and respect was the goal of people long ago? Why even debate the point about power and money – they had little need of it. Western society still has much of the ingrained misogyny of millennia of macho Mediterranean mores and the rest of the world is far worse. What greater issue is there than incest and family violence? It rots the fabric of families and society as a whole. This quote from respected anthropologist Carlton Coon about the 'hunting societies' of prehistory sets a stage we need to appreciate and evaluate.

"While under certain circumstances, in some societies, a young man may marry a woman past menopause, he may manage to have sexual relations with other women, and may possibly get a nubile second wife." (2)

This seems a workable arrangement that includes education and the planning of families to avoid unnecessary abortion or mouths who are not really cared for, does not it? The older woman would probably be able to satisfy the early sexual energy of the young man, without leading their social or tribal culture into all the problems associated with children having children such as often happen today. The young man might even develop some sexual techniques and understand his urges better than pure lustful infatuation or the need to run off to fight in order to get rape and pillage payment for some Lord or Caesar. Then when financially and emotionally prepared for parenting he might actually do a decent job. Coon was able to observe this still exists in some Neolithic societies of the present day. When the second wife arrived it might present some problems but in most cases the first wife would probably enjoy helping the new wife to understand her opportunities better. Yes, I do overstate the case, I suppose, but in the Keltic clandoms it was even better than I am suggesting.

Kids were a source and source of pride for the whole clan. In the dynamic of raising a child this allowed for many things to occur in a more mature environment with less emotional blackmail. That does not lessen the aspirations parents have for their children but it makes for a lot less vicarious pressure, as parents have to spend all their waking hours attending to the needs of kids; Who see a way to get what they want by playing to the unrealistic parents who have yet to learn what they need to know. There are aspects of North American Indians tribes that show a similar approach to child-raising. The Stadacona Indians sent some of their children with Cartier, much as the Kelts shared educational opportunities with trading partners. Aunts and uncles do the disciplining of children among the Cree. The extended family and communal living is very clannish and even Gibbon noted there were heraladic Indian regalia that mirrored those of British heraldry.

The Hurons and Iroquois are most like the Irish or Norse Kelts in their social structure. Crimes committed by a member of a family or clan (tribe) are paid for by the whole family. With this kind of policing or morals bureaucracy would starve for want of something to do. The compassion and behavior modification of a family is better than that of the police or prisons, I think. The women of the Iroquois were the decision makers in most cases except the daily running of a war once it was approved. These women owned the assets or leaseholds. No one owned land just as was true in the land use laws of the Kelts which the English had to expunge along with all other just and fair culture when they finally forced Ireland under their rule. The Indians still practice Potlatch or the giving of respect and assets respectively the 1920s law against it in Canada. We can all imagine the Tax collectors do not like this kind of custom. It was much more than mere taxes the government bought and the Supreme Court had ruled the government and Catholic Church were intent on the total destruction of Indian beliefs, in recent rulings.

"In any event, the incest tabus recognized in any given hunting society bear some relationship to his choice (or to his and / or her parents' choice) of a marital partner." Of these prohibitions there are three basic and quite different incest tabus, Prohibiting intercourse between father and daughter, mother and son, and brother and sister. These prohibitions are not based on instinct or the inductive experience of the genetic consequences that sometimes result {Like the idiots and haemophiliacs or sexual deviates who lead us as a result of 'Noble' heritage – to war and other great heroic endeavors.} Some individuals violate them, but if so the violations do not result in marriage.

To a considerable extent these primary incest tabus are based on two kinds of antisocial results. Parent-child intervention would disrupt the lines of authority between generations, lines that hold the family together. Brother-sister intercourse during adolescence would inhibit intermarriage between families, reducing their interdependence. There was a married woman to have an intercourse with her brother, it would create a state of serious conflict between her husband and his brother-in-law, two kinsmen by marriage who, in certain cultures, might need each other's confidence and help. " 3)

The 'controlling scholasticism of the Middle Ages' referred to by Ralston Saul was part of the continuing effort to destroy these real family values. The marriage laws of the Kelts had to be eliminated because these laws were equitable and fair to women and children. Bastards were not ever possible in Keltic society and the idea of ​​a single mother was totally different than it is today. Of course, the payment of mercenaries including the rape and pill which enabled men to gradually lose all decent tabus or constructs based on the ancient means of care for each other that were part of all the systems Brotherhood developed, through common sense. The elevation of Gods from the state of hero (mere human) to Divine Rights and separate from Nature, is at the root of a lot of it. Heyerdahl thinks Odin was a Keltic king in southern Russia around the time of Christ and I find that quite possibly. When man began to say other men were unable to comprehend nature and needed an interpreter for the collective soul of humanity and all life, things began the downward drift to the hegemony that often even sins man has a soul.

The extent of character assassination by academies that do not delve into the reasons for Caesar's publication or quote others who did not employ due diligence is as evident today as it ever was. The people who focus on Kelistic sacrifices and trophy head customs are telling a fact but not the whole truth. What is abortion and capital punishment if not sacrificing the life of people, perhaps for a common good? Victorian prudishness developed the 'sins and demons' fear-mongering of Jehovian greed even further. In fact the Western Tradition has succeeded in the destruction of all Ancient Knowledge if you were to believe what is allowed to be distributed through 'official' or educational channels. The Temples of Saphos and Mesopotamia joined all Mediterranean cultures in some form of forced prostitution for women, while the Biblical 'Devoted Ones' were sacrificed when the priest or his cronies were through with other obvious and disgusting uses of them. Often the orphans and waifs caused by the changing laws and racial unrest and prejudice made in these times, led souls to a place worse than the Hell ruled by the Catholic created Satan. The excellent book called The Golden Bough by Sir James Frazer gives ample evidence from reliable sources about burning Red Heads and women of all classes being forced to sell their bodies and give the money to the Temple. It may have started with Abraham (and other Ur-Story proponents with their harems) and his baby-factories but it was certainly not the way of ancient Kelts even after his time. The Indians of North America and the natives of Hawaii are ample testimony of the diversity of Keltic egalitarian approaches.

Free Annual Credit Report – A Groundbreaking Service!

One of the few pieces of legislation which went through like hot knife through butter was the one in 2003, which freed customers and users of credit cards and other credit instruments from a closed door assessment of their credit rating risk. By this legislation, called FACT Act, every person who is a credit user has the right to have a free credit report annually. The upshot of this landmark legislation was that the consumer now has a right to check its veracity and ask for additional information or ask for corrections to the report.

The Act introduced a certain amount of transparency in the how and on what basis the credit rating agencies collected, collated, and arrived at the risks associated to a consumer. Till this time, the consumer was in the dark, with a veil of secrecy shrouding it.

How does this all help you? There can be errors in your credit report. A single different digit or even a space between characters would completely alter it. You might find that you have been billed for what you never even thought about, or, as in many cases, payments made on the due date, were not correctly entered, resulting in a technical default, which adds up over the year, would lead To a misleading impression of always lagging behind in payment! And that's apart from the charges for late payment adding up to your bill.

You may also be unpleasantly surprised that you have been bumped for a few thousands of dollars of purchases made in a place which you never even knew existed..in other words, someone hijacked your identity!

When you find these sort of transactions on your credit report, you have to immediately contact the agency, and enter into a dialogue with them to correct those errors.

Today, you even have software which you can download on your computer which, in addition, to looking up your credit rating, also perform tasks such as monitoring unusual transactions, point to errors in your credit reports, and also warning you if you were to Come near a danger point on your credit rating. Call it an EWS or early warning system for you.

How to get it? Go on to the sites of the main providers of this source of information, namely, Experian, Equifax and Transunion. Their web sites are experian.com, equifax.com, transunion.com. Just add, if you want to, the www. Before them. Today's software just wrists it up automatically.

Logging will require you to confirm your identity, which could include multiple proofs based on what you provided for the credit card, or a unique number which would identify you; Today, additional questions are asked to really confirm that you really are what you are. Sorry, but that's one way of keeping a possible hacker at bay. You can then do anything with it: print, download, or view. It is better to download and also keep a printout.

It is best if you were to take down the your Credit Report from all the three agencies. Some report to one or the other, and therefore what may be in one, may not be in the other. The software mentioned above, can have the facility to log in on its own, provided you enable it, and it would scan it for you, and flag the discrepancies.

You can use freecreditreport.com, annualcreditreport.com, that will give you step by step advise on securing the reports from these agencies.

You must use this facility given to you by law. It is for your protection, safety, and its your money.

Distinction Between Provisions And Reserves

Reserves

1. It is created by debiting the profit and loss appropriation account.

2. It is created to meet an unknown liability, or to strengthen the financial position of the company or for equalization of dividends etc.

3. A reserve is created only when there is profit in the business.

4. It can be distributed among shareholders as dividend.

5. The reserve is created without taking into consideration the actual amount required except in the case of redemption of debentures when a definite sum is set aside.

6. Creation of reserve depends upon the financial policy of the business and discretion of its management.

7. It is usually shown on the liability side of the balance sheet as it is not a specific reserve.

Provisions

1. It is created by debiting the profit and loss account.

2. It is created to meet a known liability or a specific contingency, e.g.. provision for bad and doubtful debts, or provision for depreciation etc.

3. A provision is created irrespective of whether there is profit or loss in the business.

4. It is not available for distribution as dividend among shareholders.

5. A provision is made for a definite amount and, therefore, a definite sum is set aside every year to meet the known contingency.

6. Making of a provision is a must to meet known liability or contingency.

7. The provision is generally shown on the assets side of the balance sheet.

Distinction between general reserve and specific reserve

General reserve

1. It is created for a specific purpose.

2. It is utilized for that specific purpose, for which it was created.

3. Whether profit or no profits, it must be created.

4. It is necessary to create in order to ascertain profit.

5. It is shown on the debit side of profit and loss account.

6. Net profits are reduced because of it.

Specific Reserve

1. It is created not for any specific purpose but for meeting future contingencies.

2. It can be utilized for meeting any future loss.

3. It is created only when there are sufficient profit.

4. They are created only when there are profits i.e. they depend upon profits.

5. It is shown on the debit side of profit and loss appropriation account.

6. Only distributable profits are reduced because of it.

Reserve Fund

Profit set aside and used in the business is a reserve. But profit set aside and invested outside the business is a reserve fund. Thus, the use of the term ‘fund’ indicates

investment of reserve outside the business.

Sinking Fund

A sinking fund is a fund built up by annual contributions. The contributions are invested outside the business in readily realizable securities. Interest received on investments is reinvested in the same securities.

A sinking fund may be (i) for replacement of fixed assets or (ii) for the redemption of debentures or repayment of loan. A sinking fund for the replacement of a fixed asset is a provision. But a sinking fund for redemption of debentures or repayment of loan is an appropriation of profits. A sinking fund represents amount invested outside the business.

Distinction between reserve fund and sinking fund

Reserve fund

1. Investments are not for definite period.

2. It is created always out of divisible profits.

3. Interest received on investments representing reserve fund may not be re-invested.

Sinking fund

1. Investments are for a definite period.

2. It is not always out of divisible profit e.g. sinking fund for replacement of asset is provision for depreciation, it must be created even if there are no profits.

3. In case of sinking fund, interest is always re-invested.

5 Important Aspects of Internet Marketing

The Internet has boomed especially in the last decade. It has provided an ample number of opportunities to businesses of every genre. Business owners have also realized the huge potential of the online world which has made them ponder about the various marketing strategies. Hiring an Internet Marketing Company has become a common trend for most of the firms.

However, before investing your money in the various Internet marketing techniques, it is important that you keep in mind the below-mentioned 5 Important Aspects of Internet Marketing.

Importance of Content

This is one of the foremost aspects of successful marketing of a website. In today’s competitive world, it is necessary to have a content that is unique and amazing to read. The only way to make your visitors engaged to your website is to serve them with quality and informative content. There is no point in posting useless or irrelevant content as it would put a scar in the minds of your visitors about your website.

Design of Your Website

The design of a website plays a pivotal role in the retention of visitors on your website. Thus, it becomes important that your website must be such that it keeps your visitors engaged and prompts them to explore more. This will in return prove to be very beneficial for your business as some of these visitors would get converted into your loyal customers. All your products and services showcased on your website will be of no use if they are not backed up by an amazing design.

Be Social

The impact of social media platforms is not hidden from anyone. With the advent of smartphones more and more users have become active on these platforms. With the perspective of businesses, social media is considered one of the most Affordable Internet Marketing strategy. All you need to do is create on account on these social media platforms and start promoting your business. This is beneficial especially for all the startups or the new players in the market. With the medium of social media, they will be able to create an awareness about their products in the minds of the visitors.

Building Links

Earning links from the top websites is not an easy task. Due to this reason, most of the companies hire professionals that have expertise in link building. The major search engines like Google, Yahoo etc, consider these links while displaying their search results. In today’s time, quality is all that matters. Therefore, special attention needs to be given on the relevancy and quality of your website. Getting a link from a recognized and reputed website will do wonders for your website.

Web Analytics

Website analytics will enable any business owner to have a clear idea about the actual traffic that has been received on his website. One great way of doing is by making use of Google analytics. This will allow you to know how your website was found, what were the keywords that were used for searching the website, what all pages were viewed, the number of active visitors on your website and much more.

Conclusion

All the points that are mentioned in this article are considered really important for effective Internet marketing. Each aspect has its own importance and must not be neglected. Following them will prove very helpful for your business website.

Do let me know your view about the article in the comments section below.

Comments: The Lowdown on Adults Only Resort Vacations

Alternative Investment Fund Regulations

What is an Alternative Investment Fund (AIF)

AIF is an Alternative Investment Fund Regulations privately pooled investment vehicle which collects funds from investors, whether Indian or foreign, for investing it in accordance with a defined investment policy for the benefit of its investors. AIF may be in the form of a trust or a company or a limited liability partnership or a body corporate.

Why AIF

AIF Regulations endeavor to extend the perimeter of regulation to unregulated funds with a view to ensuring systemic stability, increasing market efficiency, encouraging the formation of new capital and consumer protection.

Who are not covered

Currently, the AIF Regulations do not apply to mutual funds, collective investment schemes, family trusts, ESOP and other employee welfare trusts, holding companies, special purpose vehicles, funds managed by securitisation or reconstruction companies and any such pool of funds which is directly regulated by any other regulator in India.

Categories of AIFs

An AIF needs to seek registration broadly under one of the 3 categories -

Category I AIF: The following are covered under Category I

1. Funds investing in start-up or early stage ventures or social ventures or SMEs or infrastructure

2. Other sectors or areas which the government or regulators consider as socially or economically desirable including the Venture Capital Funds

3. AIFs with positive spillover effects on the economy, for which certain incentives or concessions might be considered by SEBI or Government of India or other regulators in India

Category II AIF: The following are covered under Category II

1. AIFs for which no specific incentives or concessions are given by the government or any other Regulator

2. Which shall not undertake leverage other than to meet day-to-day operational requirements as permitted in these Regulations

3. Which shall include Private Equity Funds, Debt Funds, Fund of Funds and such other funds that are not classified as category I or III

Category III AIF: The following get covered under Category III

1. The AIFs including hedge funds which trade with a view to making short term returns;

2. Which employ diverse or complex trading strategies

3. Which may employ leverage including through investment in listed or unlisted derivatives

Applicability of AIF Regulations to Real Estate Funds

After knowing what an AIF is and its broad categories, we analyse whether AIF Regulations are applicable to the Real Estate Funds

Firstly AIF has to seek registration under AIF Regulations under one of the three categories stated above. Therefore if a Fund does not fall under any of the three categories stated above, then it will not seek the registration with SEBI.

If we look at the Category 1, registration is required by funds which invest in start-up or early stage ventures or social ventures or SMEs or infrastructure

If we look at the definition of infrastructure, Explanation to Regulation 2 (m) states that Infrastructure shall be as defined by the Government of India from time to time.

And in the normal parlance, the term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, electrical grids,

telecommunications, and so forth, and can be defined as “the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions.

Therefore infrastructure does not include the real estate or construction activity since this activity deals in investing in land, developing the land by way of construction of flats, townships and other residential and commercial projects.

But if the real estate fund carries on certain projects for a social purpose like purchasing land for charity etc.; then the fund may be covered under social venture funds.

The clause further states that ‘or other sectors or areas which the government or regulators consider as socially or economically desirable and such other Alternative Investment Funds as may be specified;’

The AIF Regulations have been notified just a few days back and till date, no other AIF funds have been specified in the Category 1 by the Government. Further what the government or regulators consider as socially and economically viable is a very broad concept. However, till the Government specifically comes out with specific inclusions under Category 1; a Real Estate Fund will not be covered under Category 1 and therefore would not require Registration.

Further, the clause also states that – Alternative Investment Funds which are generally perceived to have positive spillover effects on economy and for which the Board or Government of India or other regulators in India might consider providing incentives or concessions will bee included

By adding these lines to the Category 1, SEBI has made the category 1 very vague and open to dispute and litigations since what SEBI intends with positive spillover effects on the economy is not defined or clarified. Different people or organizations may have a different opinion on this which would lead to unnecessary litigations and hardships to business owners. However, till any clarity comes on this, the business owners need to take a cautious approach to the decision of seeking Registration under AIF Regulations.

Category II AIF

Now we examine whether a Real Estate Fund falls under the Category II AIF

If we look at the funds covered by Category II above, they

1. Shall not fall in Category I and III

2. Shall not undertake leverage or borrowing other than to meet day-to- day operational requirements and as permitted by these regulations;

3. Shall be funded such as private equity funds or debt funds for which no specific incentives or concessions are given by the government or any other Regulator

For Real Estate Fund under Category I, we notice that at present it does not fall under Category I and it also does not fall under Category III since these are basically hedge funds. Further, no specific incentives or concessions are given by the Government to the Real Estate Sector. Therefore if we look at the applicability of Real Estate Fund under Category II, these funds may fall under the Category II AIFs if they do not take leverage or borrowing except for short-term requirements.

Impact of AIF on the Real Estate Funds

Under these Regulations, the minimum investment amount has to be Rs 1 crore from each investor. Therefore attracting the funds from the investors would become tough for the real estate funds, who used to raise amounts as less as INR 1 million from the investors. Now they would need to find high-value investors though this is not the only challenge that lies ahead for those raising domestic corpuses. They now also have to invest 2.5% of the corpus or Rs 5 crore, whichever is lower, to ensure that the managing company’s risk is aligned with that of the investor. Moreover, a single investment in a company or a project cannot exceed 25% of the entire corpus.

Further a Real Estate Fund registered in the form of an LLP also would be covered under the AIF Regulations. In an LLP Structure, since the investors are also partners, the risk to the rights of the investors being misused is very minimum. Therefore applying the AIF Regulations to the LLP Structure would reduce the flexibility available to such a Structure.

Conclusion

If we look at the AIF Regulations from a short term perspective, in light of the difficult fund raising environment today, the higher ticket size for investors could potentially throw up some challenges and could in a manner constrict the growth of the asset class, but clearly, in the long run, these regulations appear to have an element of maturity to play a pivotal role in the development and shaping up of the future of alternate asset class in India. It is also clear that alternative investments are more sophisticated and risky as compared to investments in equity and debt and till market matures it is advisable that only HNIs and well informed investors make an investment in this asset class and once the market matures it is made open to all. In the long run, we may see more investments in the Alternative asset class (in terms of quantum and maturity) due to the increased investor confidence in these funds.

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